DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21830/19006586.83

La influencia de la comprensión cambiante del poder sobre la estrategia: un ensayo genealógico

Philippe Dufort

Resumen


El vínculo entre teoría social y la producción de conocimiento estratégico de innovación en diferentes contextos y épocas continúa siendo un interrogante complejo. No obstante, para los estratégicos que conforman una disciplina radicalmente instrumental, la noción de poder es el punto central de su relación con el mundo social. En consonancia con el pensamiento político de la escuela de Cambridge, el presente artículo presenta un breve ejercicio genealógico aplicado al modo estratégico de pensar en Occidente, con el propósito de obtener una mejor comprensión de su enfoque cambiante hacia la estrategia ‘en su propia dinámica’. Este ejercicio permite distinguir la fluctuante comprensión de cada una de las nociones de poder involucradas, y su concepto correlativo de crítica, como la precondición teórica más influyente para la innovación estratégica en estudios estratégicos. Nuestro análisis recorre de nuevo el camino de dos tradiciones con visiones antitéticas de la estrategia occidental, lo cual es de vital importancia para comprender la problemática de la innovación en estudios estratégicos. La primera tradición —siguiendo el pensamiento de Maquiavelo, Nietzsche y Foucault— concibe el sujeto en términos de las dinámicas técnicas de poder, en tanto que la segunda —siguiendo el pensamiento de Aristóteles, Kant y Habermas— lo dilucida a partir de las bases legítimas del poder. Los estudios estratégicos críticos no pueden integrar las percepciones de reflexividad —en tanto herramienta cognitiva diferenciador— dado que incorpora indistintamente estas dos perspectivas inconmensurables. Su consideración simultánea genera una tensión cognitiva inherente, de modo que suscita tanto el interés por una estrategia crítica para abordar discretamente el poder como fuerza y el poder como legitimación y la respectiva responsabilidad por parte del estratega de equilibrar sus implicaciones en la práctica.

Palabras clave


estrategia; genealogía; Nietzsche; poder; crítica; Clausewitz

Texto completo:

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